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What is Ethernet over Coax? Convert Your Coax to Ethernet Transmission

Turn Coax into Ethernet: What's Ethernet over Coax? Complete FAQ

In this article, we introduce the technology of Ethernet over Coax, the applications in IP camera systems, including what IP/PoE over Coax is used, and FAQs about EoC technology. You can click the link below to jump to the corresponding paragraph.

1. What is Ethernet over Coax?

2. How EoC Is Applied to Security Systems

3. Convert Coax to Ethernet: IP/PoE over Coax Technology

4. Ethernet over Coax FAQ

5. Tech Support & Cautions

What is Ethernet over Coax?

The original Ethernet technology did not use the most common twisted pair today—the first Ethernet standard 10BASE5 ThickNet in 1983 used coaxial cables for transmission. Later, however, cheaper and smaller network cables became common and gradually replaced coaxial cables in the transmission of Ethernet.

Though Ethernet using network cables is now the norm, the technique of Ethernet over Coax (EoC) is still required, for coaxial cables are widely used in security camera systems everywhere. The need to transmit network signals over the existing coaxial cables exists no matter in urban or rural areas.

Nowadays, Ethernet over Coax has different application areas with diverse standards and transmission rates, including:

What is Ethernet over Coax? EoC technologies: MoCA, ITU-T G.hn, Homeplug.
  • MoCA
  • ITU-T G.hn
  • Homeplug

IP/PoE over Coax, the technology developed to extend IP/PoE cameras' transmission distance via coaxial cables, is also derived from EoC. We'll cover more about the benefits of extending network signals over coax in the following passages.

How EoC Is Applied to Security Systems

Basics of IP Camera Systems

Security Camera System comprised of cameras, DVR/NVR, and monitors.

IP Cameras

In today's security camera systems, there are two typical types of cameras: One is digital cameras, such as IP/PoE cameras; and the other is analog cameras. Among them, IP cameras, which can be accessed over a network connection, have several advantages that make them gradually replace traditional analog cameras.

Low Wiring Cost

Although IP cameras are more expensive than analog cameras, IP is transmitted by network cables, which are much cheaper than coaxial cables used to transmit analog signals. Regarding wiring costs, IP/PoE cameras are more affordable than traditional analog cameras, especially when building a whole new security camera system.

Network cable vs. coaxial cable: wiring cost.

Convenient Power Supplies

Whereas traditional cameras need two separate cables to transmit power and video signal, IP cameras use PoE (Power over Ethernet), the technology to transmit power and video simultaneously via a single network cable. Thus, the tricky power supply is never a problem for IP cameras.

A PoE camera uses a single coaxial/ethernet cable for power and video.

Multi-Function

IP cameras encrypt signals; this prevents video and audio from being intercepted and ensures security. In addition, an IP camera is like a mini-computer; it has functions like remote connection, license plate recognition, face recognition, etc.

IP cameras vs. analog cameras: IP cameras support face recognition

High Compatibility

While there is demand for analog cameras due to the barrier of IP technology, analog camera manufacturers have continued producing new, High Definition (HD) cameras in recent years. Nonetheless, different manufacturers have developed their technology, such as CVI, TVI, and AHD, and it is unlikely to invent a new technology that can be compatible with all of them. On the other hand, IP cameras have a common network protocol worldwide; the compatibility of devices is also higher than analog HD cameras.

IP cameras vs. HD-CVI/TVI/AHD cameras: high compatibility of IP cameras

Challenges of Rewiring When Upgrading HD to IP Cameras

Wear and Tear of Cables

Generally, the biggest challenge when upgrading analog cameras to IP cameras is the rewiring—replacing old coaxial cables with ethernet cables. While rewiring is never as simple as purchasing and installing new cables and equipment, it sometimes includes the following difficulties:

  • Labor cost: Rewiring often involves a lot of labor.
  • Space Limitation: Rewiring renders public areas unusable.
  • Time-Consuming: The project can be quite time-consuming depending on the setup environment.

EoC Helps Reduce the Cost

Based on our experience, instead of replacing ethernet cables, using EoC can save the cost of new cables and reduce labor, equipment, and time expenditure, which account for 4-8% of the total project budget. Depending on the type of project, the larger project can lead to a higher cost and percentage.

In addition, a multi-input EoC device saves the cost of multiple devices. For instance, a 4-in-1-out IP/PoE extender switch allows the transmission of 4 IP cameras over coax at one time.

Save budget by ethernet over coaxial cable technology

Convert Coax to Ethernet: IP/PoE over Coax Technology

For the immense cost of upgrading the devices, matured EoC technology combined with IP cameras is considered the best solution to save the budget and reduce time. Setting up IP camera over Coax in your security camera system only costs a short time.

Video and Network over Coax

IP over Coax can be used to reduce the construction and technical cost of upgrading security devices. Only an IP over Coax extender is needed for a digital camera and network switch to transmit signals over your existing coaxial cables.

In addition, an IP/PoE extender over Coax can work as a network extender for network signals.

PoE over Coax

IC technology changes rapidly; many adapters now have IEEE 802.3 at/af/bf specification. In addition to network signals, coaxial cables can carry power for cameras as network cables can, which means transmitting PoE over Coax.

Highly Expandable

The original coaxial cable can work with an IP/PoE over Coax extender and connect to a network switch, which means that multiple IP cameras can be set up at the location where only one analog camera can be placed. You can add more nodes as long as it is within the bandwidth limit.

How to connect PoE over coax switches and EoC devices diagram

PoE Extender over Coax Installation Video

Ethernet over Coax FAQ

What May Affect Coaxial Transmission?

Types of Coaxial Cables

While ethernet cables are divided by bandwidth, coaxial cables are classified by their cores. Coaxial cables with a higher number have thicker cores and are less likely to degrade signals and power.

When only a short transmission distance and low-frequency signals are required, RG59 is often the choice, while RG6U and RG11 are specifically for low distortion and long transmission distances.

Types of coaxial cables; differ in transmission distance and frequency

Difference of Material

Coaxial cables with solid copper will provide a more stable signal and power than copper-clad steel cables.

Coaxial cables network data rate over long distances
Coaxial cables transmit camera wattage over long distances

How Is Ethernet over Coax Used?

EoC equipment is mostly employed to upgrade ethernet devices without replacing the existing coaxial cables. However, the advantages of coaxial cables bring more opportunities for EoC.

For instance, coaxial cables' cores are shielded and have good resistance to interference. Depending on the thickness of the core, a coaxial cable's price, efficiency, and transmission distance may differ. In terms of better coaxial cables such as RG6U, the transmission distance and quality are superior to general ethernet cables.

Where Ethernet over Coax Is Applied

Cheaper ethernet cables are adequate for small and medium-sized businesses and households; they are compatible with different devices even without adapters.

In large companies, however, the use of coaxial cables to transmit network signals can ensure consistent signal quality and long transmission distance. Moreover, coaxial outlets are common in European and American households, and the cable company may use coaxial cables to transmit TV signals to the TV set or box. You may thus require EoC equipment to connect these devices.

How to install security camera CCTV systems for companies and homes.

How to Supply Power over Ethernet

In addition to the specifications of power supplies and PoE cameras, you also need to check the specifications of coaxial cables. As mentioned, coaxial cables degrade power and signals differently. Some manufacturers may test the cables and record the watt in manuals for their users.

As long as the power provided is higher than the power consumed, PoE cameras can function properly.

How much power supply does my EoC device need?
PoE power supplies and PD's power consumption.

Use a PoE Switch

Using a PoE switch is the simplest way to supply power. Most PoE switches are now IEEE 802.3 at standard, 1 port, with a maximum amount of 30W. Take one of SC&T's solutions for instance. An IEEE 802.3 at PoE switch can only provide 12W at a distance of 800m over RG6U coaxial cables. Remember to check the detailed specifications in user manuals before applying the product.

Use a PoE Injector

  • PoE cameras connected with a non-Poe switch
  • PoE switches with inadequate power supplies

To solve the above problems, you can use a PoE Injector to connect a power supply and send the needed power to your cameras.

For example, SC&T's IP09CP can be used as a PoE injector to supply power to PoE cameras at either Tx or Rx. You only need to connect an IP09CP between the PoE camera and the inadequate switch.

Mind the Total Amount of Power

In addition to the specifications of PD (Power Device) and PSE (Power Sourcing Equipment), you should also note that cables, distance, and power adapters can affect the maximum power supplies.

Factors affecting power sourcing equipment's total power supply.

Suppose there are 4 IEEE 802.3 at PoE cameras (9W power consumption) and a set of IP09CPHK extended for 300m via RG6U coaxial cables, with a 56V 102W power adapter at Rx. The total power output is 44W at Tx, and after calculating the power loss, it can provide 40W for PDs, which is higher than the total consumption of 36W. This is an ideal power supply solution.

IP/PoE Ethernet over coax, PoE switch power supply solution.

When one of the cameras is replaced by an IEEE 802.3 af PoE camera of 25W power consumption:

25 x 1 + 9 x 3 = 52 (W)

Since the amount of 52W exceeds the maximum of 40W, you will need to connect a power adapter at Tx (IP09PH), which makes it a PSE to supply adequate power.


IP09PH (Tx) Total Output Wattage Comparison
100M 200M 300M 400M
RG6U 56V 120W
Power Adapter
71W 63W 44W 37W


PSE & PD Comparison
IP09PH Total Power Supply PD Total Power Consumption
15.4W 12.95W
30W 25.95W
45W 40W

Tech Support & Cautions

Adapters and Converters

Adapters use different media to transmit signals. The signal from the transmitter and the signal transmitted to the receiver are mostly the same, such as IP/PoE over coax devices.

Converters change signals completely; you can convert RS232 to ethernet, for instance.

Note that an IP/PoE over Coax device cannot function as a converter.

What's the difference between adapters and converters?
Difference between adapters and converters.

Be aware of Oxidation

Coaxial cable connectors are more likely to oxidize, and signals cannot pass through the oxidized connectors. Therefore, it can be necessary to trim off the oxidized parts and re-install the BNC connectors for use.

Technical Support

As EoC technology covers a wide range of industry knowledge, there can be technical issues with the EoC equipment. We suggest seeking a professional manufacturer who offers technical support and complete after-sales service when you purchase equipment.

Upgrade Security Camera System in Tunnels

Replacing analog cameras in a tunnel is never easy. SC&T's IP/PoE over coax solution helps you resolve the challenges encountered in such projects.

EoC Case Study: Taiwan Highway CCTV System Upgrade

SC&T Ethernet over Coax Products

IP/PoE over Coax products for IP/PoE cameras, power over coax solutions
SC&T IP/PoE over Coax Extender Series

Note that data rates and wattage may differ depending on transmission distance, cables, PSE adapters, etc. For detailed specifications: Technical Support.

2022-09-28 5:00 pm

Cable Used

Product Name

Technology

Power Source

Signal

Type

1080p Distance

4K Distance

Optical Fiber Cable

HDMI Fiber Cable

Fiber

(Reflection of Light)

Power From Source

Video/ Audio

Cable

100M

100M

HDMI Fiber Dongle Extender

Mini USB

Dongle

300M/ 1KM

300M/ 1KM

Network Cable

HDMI CAT5e Dongle Extender

Equalizer*

Power From Source

Video/ Audio

Dongle

40M

N/A

HDMI CAT5e Extender

External Power Supply

Video/ Audio

Stand-alone

50M

N/A

HDMI over IP Extender

Internet Protocol

External Power Supply

Video/ Audio

Stand-alone

140M

140M

HDMI KVM over IP Extender*

Video/ Audio/ Keyboard/ Mouse

150M

150M

HDMI Cable

HDMI Repeater

Bypass

External Power Supply

Video/ Audio

Stand-alone

20M

10M

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